المظاهر الحضارية في عهد الأمير عبد الرحمن الأوسط (206 ـ 238 هـ/ 821 ـ 852 م) pdf
The rise of the Islamic civilization in Andalus (spain currently) began since Amir Abdul Ramman II , 206 – 238 H after the death of his father AL-Hakam bin Hisham without any rivalry from his brothers. This is because Abdul Rahman had led many campigans in which he was the leader. Amir Abdul Rahman II was considered the builder of civilization in Andalus as he became Amir of a harmonized powerful state against Spanish kingdoms in the North. He developed the internal polices in which the system of police had been developed as well. The attack of Normans in 229 H/ 843 A.D and their threatening led to building a powerful marine forces and ships. This means that the achievements of Abdul Rahman II had some political motives. In addition to that he encouraged the scientific movement. He paid great attention to architectural movements. So he bulit many towns, places and mosques. His peace treaties affected positively on the rise of civilization and the growth of thinking. The age of Abdul Rahmman II is an age of stability and he was able to put down all internal rebellions and defeated the Spanish forces. So his age was considered the ideal among other periods on all political military and civil levels Military.
هدية محمد حميد
مجلة اداب الرافدين - جامعة الموصل
المجلد ، العدد 60
المجلات الاكاديمية العلمية العراقية
- رابط الدراسةhttps://www.iasj.net/iasj/download/08d89d8e6f4f8b3d